Khalwatiyah name is taken from the name of a Sufi scholar and warrior makassar the 17th century, Sheikh Yusuf al-khalwati al-makasari (tabarruk) to Muhammad (Nur) al-khalwati al-khawa rizmi (w.751-1350). Now there are two branches of this sufi order are present together. Both are known by the name of the sufi order (tarekat) khalwatiyah yusuf and khalwatiyah Samman. Yusuf’s khalwatiyah dhikr sufi order in saying the names of god and other short sentences are sirr in the heart, while the sufi order khalwatiyah Samman do dhikr out loud and ecstatic. The sufi order khalwatiyah Samman highly centralized, all teachers are subject to the central leadership in Maros, while the sufi order khalwatiayh yusuf has no central leadership. Local branches khalwatiyah Samman institutes often have their own places of worship (mushalla) and tend to isolate themselves from the followers of other sufi orders, while the followers khalwatiyah yusuf has no special place of worship and freely mingled with the people who are not members of the sufi order, members of the sufi order khalwatiyah yusuf lot from among the nobility makassar including last ruler of the kingdom of Gowa andi ijo sultan abdul Kadir Mohammed Aidid (reigned 1940-1960). Samman khalwatiyah more populist sufi orders both in terms of style and social compositions, most of the followers of the villagers.
To find out everything about the sufi order khalwatiyah, please note a brief history of Sheikh Yusuf al-makasari, because she who first spread the sufi order was to Indonesia in 1670. al-makasari sit and get a diploma from the sheikh abu Ayyub al-albarakah bin Ahmad bin al-Ayyub al-quraisyi khalwati and earned a taj al-khalwati so that its name to the sheikh yusuf al-taj khalwati. In South Sulawesi, he was called tuanta salamakari Gowa (our great teacher of Gowa). His full name Muhammad bin abdullah abu yusuf taj Mahasin al-makasari al-khalwati.
On the way his life al-makasari had studied some of the sufi order of which he had studied the sufi order Qadiriyah and get a diploma directly from Tarekat naqsyabandiyah al-raniri later learned from Muhammad ibn abd al-Baqi al-mizjaji al-Naqshbandi (d. 1074 H/1664 M) , al-makassari also had to learn to maulana sheikh sayyid ali al-Zabīdī and his teacher is suspected of al-makassari ba’lawiyah sufi order gets a diploma, then from the mullah ibrahim Syattariyah he received the teachings of the sufi order and the latter al-makassari learn the sheikh abu al barkah Ayyub bin-bin Ayyub al-ahmad al-quraisyi khalwati which gives the title al-makassari with taj al-khalwati and received his diploma khalwatiah sufi order.
- The teaching
Al-makassari is an outstanding scholar, is primarily a Sufi, as a Reformer of Islam in the history of the archipelago. Not mystical away from worldly matters, teachings and deeds show a wide range of activities, he played an enormous role in politics at the offerings, and even led a revolt against the Dutch after the sultan ageng Tirtayasa caught.
In the scientific field of al-makassari wrote his works in perfect Arabic. Almost all his talk about Sufism, its connection with theology. In developing the teachings of al-makassari often quoted Sufi al-Ghazali, junaidi al-Baghdadi, Ibn al-Arabi, al-jilli, Ibn atha’Allah, and others.
The central concept of Sufism is the purification of al-makassari belief (Aqeedah) in the oneness of God. This is the transcendence of God in his own efforts in explaining the creation, al-makassari emphasize the unity of God, the oneness of God is infinite and absolute. Tauhid is an important component in the teachings of Islam, who do not believe in monotheism become an infidel.
Although sticking to the transcendence of God, al-makassari believe that God encompasses everything (al-ahattah) and there is everywhere (al-ma’iyyah) upon its creation, although God to express himself in his creation , it does not mean that his creation is God himself, all creation is purely allegorical beings (al-mawjud al-majazi). than that he believed only a shadow of God’s creation rather than God Himself. According to al-makassari “the phrase” God in His creation does not mean the presence of “physical” god within them.
With the concept of al–ma’iyah and al-ahathah God down (tanazzul), while the men go up (taraqqi), a spiritual process that brings them closer. But that process will not take shape in the final unity between man and god, while the two into closer touch and finally humans still humans and gods still god. Thereby al-makassari seen her reject the concept of Wahdat al-wujud (unity of being) and al–hulul (divine incarnation)
God can not be compared with anything else (laisa ka’mitslihi syai). He took the concept of Wahdat al-syuhud concept (unity of consciousness or phenomenological monism). Carefully loosen his doctrine Wahdat al-wujud ibn-al-Arabi and the doctrine al- hulul Mansur al-Hallaj and to take the doctrine of Wahdat al-syuhud developed from ahmad al-Sirhindi.
The most striking feature of the theology of al-makassari about the oneness of God is his attempt to reconcile the characteristic of gods that seem to contradict each other. For example, has the first character (al-awwal) and the latter (al-akhir), the characteristic of the born (al-Zahir) and the inner (al-batin), which gives guidance (al-hadi) but which also allow people to get lost (al-mudhil). All these qualities seem to contradict each other. It should be understood in accordance with the oneness of God himself. If the emphasis is to ignore the other one will bring to the beliefs and practices false. That essence is the unity of the couple characteristic conflicting and no one understands the secret, except those who have been given knowledge by God himself. In the theology of al-makassari very adherent to the doctrine Ash’arite (asyariyah). In conjunction with perfect confidence on the overall pillars of faith, he called on the Muslims to fully accept the dual meaning of some verses of the Quran (ayat al-mutasyabihat).
Al-makassari divide the faithful into the four categories. First, people who just say the shahadah (declaration of faith) without true faith, are called hypocrites (munafiq). Second, people who say their the creed in the soul of the faithful called the laity (al-Mu’min al-awamm). Third, believers are fully aware and spiritual implications of the declaration of faith in their lives, so-called elite (ahl-khawashsh). Fourth, is the highest category of the faithful who came out of the three groups by intensifying their syadat primarily with the practice of Sufism in order to be closer to God, their dynamics “selected from the elite” (al-khawashsh Khass).
Basic teachings of the sufi order khalwatiyah
- Yaqza: awareness of themselves as being humiliated in front of the almighty Allah supreme.
- Tawbah: beg forgiveness of all sins.
- Muhasabah: introspection.
- Inabah: desire to return to God.
- Tafakkur: contemplation of the greatness of God.
- I’tisam: always act as the vicegerent of Allah on earth.
- Firar: run away from evil and worldly life is not useful
- Riyadah: train yourself to do good as much as possible.
- Tasyakur: always give thanks to God by serving and praising Him.
- Sima ‘: the concentration of the whole body in following God’s commandments, especially hearing.Alpha
Student should tawajjuh, the students met and received lessons from a teacher in a special basis, face to face. Here murshid also teaches zikr dhikr-specific, genealogy is given, after that held allegiance, talkin. Early stage to do a prospective student must hold a purification of mind, attitude and behavior that is not good like:
- Hasad: jealous attitude towards God’s blessings are given to others.
- Riya: demonstrate property or charity to receive praise from others.
- Ghibah: talking about people who are disapproval and insults.
- After the sacred inner filled with attitude and good behavior such as:
- Husn al-zhan: kindly thought to God and man as His creatures
- Husn al-khuluq: good moral for God and all His creation
- Husn al-adab: politeness toward God as evidence taslim
The members of the sufi order (the students) are distinguished according to levels (maqam-maqam) as follows:
- Maqam Bidayah or Beginning
At this station of the road taken akhyar (best man), that is the way to further training, to improve and expand worship such as prayer, voluntary prayer, fasting, reading al-quran, alms, pilgrimage, and jihad. At this station Nafi ithbat remembrance began to be taught, that the phrase la ilaha illa Allah with the amount specified in the training (usually between 10-100-300 times every day)Alpha
- Maqam Tawassut / Khawashsh or Special Level
Mujahadah taken at this station, which is a hard way of training the mind to transform into Islamic Morals by multiplying the charity and unseen. Dhikr exercises coupled with the remembrance of Allah-Allah with a certain amount (usually between 40-101-300 times every day)
- c. Nihayah or al-maqam al-khawashsh khash
This station is a station of experts of remembrance, that is the way for a group that is deeply in love to God and is the highest class, both of the seriousness of the implementation of sharia and the exercises of his soul so that the hijab is open between the slave and his god. It means he’s drowning and very near to god. Exercises practiced remembrance dhikr that is “huwa–huwa” isyarah and (ah-ah). Remembrance ah-ah is a special remembrance given and practiced by a sheikh or murshid certain students are selected.
2. The genealogy of the sufi order khalwatiyah
Wasilah is mediated through a spiritual guide (murshid) as something that is necessary for spiritual progress. For up to an encounter with someone who absolutely does not only need guidance but the active interference of the spiritual guide and mentor the pre predecessors, including the most important prophet Mohammed. This is the significance of the genealogy: it shows the chain that connects a person with the prophets and through him to God. Therefore, an important part in the spiritual quest is to find a reliable murshid. One must follow the guidance of the teacher’s unconditional, absolute obedience like a corpse in the hands of people who washed.
3. The works of al-makassari
According to the eight Azyumardi Azra among al-makassari papers written in Ceylon, namely:
ü Al-barakat al-saylaniyah
ü Al-nafahat al-saylaniyah
ü Al-manhat al-saylaniyah fi manhat al-rahmaniyah
ü Kayfiyah al-mughni fi al sa’adat al-murid
ü Habl al-warit li sa’adat al-murid
ü Safinah a-najah
ü Mathalib al-salikin
ü Risalah al-ghayat al-ikhtishar wa al-nihayat al-intizhar
- Know Sufi Order Sammaniyah
Sammaniyah sufi order is the first institute that gets the most followers in the archipelago. The important thing in this sufi order is Wahdat al-wujud style that followed and the “unspoken” (terucapkan) syathahat him not contra the Law. This conclusioncan be proved by trying to interpret the “unspoken” syathahat by Shaikh Samman and in the book of Shaikh al-walry Manaqib al-syahir himself clearly stated that Samman is a Sufi sheikh who has combined between Shari’a and Tariqa (baina jami al–Sharia wa al–tariqa).
This sufi order was founded by Mohammed bin Sammaniyah abd al-Karim al-madani al-Shafi’i al-Samman (1130-1189/1718-1775). He was born in The medina of Quraish family. between students and followers, he is better known as Muhammad al-Samman or Shaikh Samman was not only master the field of sufi order alone but fields other Islamic sciences.
Shaikh Samman is also pretty much follow the teachings of other institutes so that the teachings of the various sufi orders, Samman and combines the techniques of dhikr, other readings, and all the order’s mystical teachings with some additions such As qashidah and other literature that he compiled his own .
This concoction of various institutes become a single name, sammaniyahsufi order. The pattern of the sufi order who are not genuine or “real” is nota new issue in the world of Sufism. That is, Samman is not the only people that make up the teaching of the sufi order was not the “original”. Is Muhammad Utsman al-Mirghani who founded the sufi order khatmiyah nothing but a concoction of incorporation naqsyabandiyah, Qadiriyah, syadziliyah, junaidiyah, and mirghaniyah. While the akhmad khotib sambas a scholar of borneo but long stay in makkah the mid-19th century, called it a Qadiriyah wa naqsyabandiyah after dispensing the various sufi orders, Such as naqsyabandiyah Qadiriyah, tariqa al-anfas, tariqa al-junaidiyah, and tariqa muwafaqah. The sufi order, founded ahmad khatib Sambas this will eventually replace sammaniyah sufi orders as sufi orders of the most popular in Indonesia.
- Ritual Sufi Order Sammaniyah
To become a member of the sufi order a person must go through the process of allegiance (bai’at). In the procession, he must read the oath of allegiance, the oath of allegiance to the sheikh himself to be salik or students, the consequences he must follow the rules and regulations that have been officially assigned to the sufi order, including his relationship with the sheikh.
The existing rules, one of which is students should apply as if a corpse in front of people who would bathe and bury it. Because basically, Sheikh sufi order with that are science and “karamah “ make it as an intermediary god and his servants. Thereby sayaikh will guide the student to feel mortal fillah level (fana fi allah).
- Teaching of the sufi order Sammaniyah
Tawasul is indeed a blessing to ask certain parties who made Wasilah (intermediaries) in tawasul it, so that is can be achieved. Tawasul object is the prophet Muhammad, his family and his companions, the names of Allah, the auliah,the jurists, experts institutes, experts makrifat, both parents and others.
- Wahdat al-wujud
Shaikh Samman is a Sufi follower Wahdat al–wujud flow that often ecstatic and “unspoken” Syathahat him. Nevertheless, he is very strong in holding the Shari’a.Classified as a Sufi Shaikh Samman is a lot of sentences unspoken by him in syathahat but he did not claim to Al-Haqq, he just claiming to “Mohammed”. Thus the mode of Wahdat al-wujud that he embraced and the unspoken syathahat himnot be in contradiction the Law.
In Sufi teachings in general, Wahdat al–wujud is final goal would be achieved by the Sufis in mujahadat. It was common knowledge that the practice of Sufis mujahadat divided into four levels: (1) Shari’a, (2) orders, (3) makrifat, and (4) hakikat. Sharia law is concerned the obligation to worship and muamalah, taekat is mujahadat activity related to the practice of dhikr and wird. makrifat is the ability of the heart of a salik eye (student sufi order) in time to see supernatural beings, like meeting an angel, the guardian spirit of God, saw heaven, hell, and others. Hakikat that is the essence, the meant is the essence or hakikat of any nature, or the reality of Muhammad Nur Muhammad. Wahdat al-wujud is the stage where it is united with the essence of this hakikat, the reality of Muhammad or Nur Muhammad.
- Nur Muhammad
Shaikh Nur Muhammad Samman said that it is one of the secrets of the all mystery of God and gave the station. Nur Muhammad was the first time before the others come into shape, while its form is the essence nature or essence of this form. Nur Muhammad is the base of the formation of the universe, and indeed of all creatures his form generation happen.
- Perfect Man (insan kamil)
Every creature has a nur Muhammad, of the many intangible human beings, flora, fauna, and so other. Then the man is a creature who has the most high-nur Muhammad and the brightest. Man is seen as a creature that has the ability of physical, spiritual and even the intelligence to get close (taqarrub) to God in union with God through Nur Muhammad. However, only the man who has the title of a perfectman (insaan kamil) can approach God alone even one with god (wihdat al-wujud). In terms of religious law, wujud perfect man is the prophet Mohammed, is in terms of the hakikat of the reality of nur Muhammad. Relations can be described like this: the prophet Mohammed is a corridor leading to the perfect man, that is the essence of place “shadow” of god. Islamic people who are interested to God to see him have to through pass this corridor, which followed in the footsteps of Prophet Muhammad
Sheikh samman is a sufi who has combined between Shari’a and Tariqa (al–jami baina al–Shari’ah wa al–tariqat). Syathahat, as already mentioned by Shaikh unspoken when it fused with God (Wahdat al wujud). Syathahat”unspoken” by Shaikh , not “spoken”, because his ideas come from God. Sheikh samman is only tongue that is used by God. Union with God means union with Nur Muhammad, because Muhammad’s nur (appearance of God) For fused with God can happen anytime and anywhere.
3. Several books written by Shaikh samman
ü Al-futuhat ilahiyyat fi tawajjuhat al-ruhiyat
ü Syarah manzumat jaliyat kubra
ü Risalat al-samman fi al-dzikr wa kayfiyyatihi
ü Risalat asrar al-ibadah
ü Kasyf al-asrar fi ma yata allaqu bihi ism al-qahhar
ü Mukhtashar al-thariqat al-Muhamadiyyat
ü Al-nafkhat al-qudsiyyat
ü Al-nafkhatu ilahiyyat fi kayfiyyat al-suluk al-thariqati al-Muhamadiyyat
ü Shalawat nur Muhamad
ü Jaliyat al-kurbi wa manilat al-arbi.
ü Urwah al-wutsqa wa silsilah uli al-ittiqa sidi Muhamad al-samman Al-ainiyah.
- Know Sufi Order Qodiriyah wa Naqsyabandiyah
Sufi order qodiriyah wa naqsyabandiyah is a sufi order combination of sufi order Qadiriyah and naqsyabandiyah. The sufi order was established if the Shaikh ahmad khotib Sambas (1802 -1872), known as the author of fath al-arifin. The sufi order is teaching two kinds of remembrance at the same time the recollection that is read by loud (Jahar) in Qadiriyah and remembrance institute done in the heart (silent) in the sufi order naqsyabandiyah
- Teachings sufi order Qadiriyah naqsyabandiyah
The book of fath al-arifin written by ahmad khatib Sambas as teaching resource of the sufi order Qadiriyah naqsyabandiyah, there is only a single manuscript in the nation library that is Jakarta compiled by his student ma’ruf al-palimbani. Broadly speaking, teaching TQN elements, namely ; allegiance ordinance, ten kinds of lathaif, then he explains about the zikr In sufi order Qadiriyah, and forwarded to the remembrance of the sufi order explain Naqsabandiyah, Shaikh Sambas explains about the three conditions to be met by a person who was walking toward God, the silence in remembrance of God, was always being watched by God in his heart and dedication to the Shaikh, later concludes with a detailed description of the twenty kinds of meditation (muraqabah). Before closing, this book contains the genealogy of Shaikh Sambas from him to the prophet, and the most recent of these writings part of the seal (khatam) from the sufi order Shaikh Abd al-Qadir al-jilain.
Development of the teaching sufi orders that seem new naqsyabandiyah Qadiriyah known in South east Asia, it begins from the book of the fath al-arifin. Although the main students syaikh Sambas is sheikh abd al-karim banten (born1840) did not appear to be widely developed TQN teachings, but later generations, especially in centers TQN in Java, Qadiriyah naqsyabandiyah relatively advanced and rapidly evolving. Shaykh abd al-karim banten designated by the Sheikh Sambas as a substitute, he has been together since their childhood sheikh Sambas while studying in makkah. His job is to spread the first sufi order was in Singapore for several years. In 1872 he returned to his village, lampuyangan and stayed there for about three years. Then in 1876 he was called to makkah to be the caliph of Shaykh Sambas as the supreme leader TQN. Zamakhsyari Dhofier mention that in the seventies the four main centers TQN in Java, namely: Rejoso, under the leadership kiai Tamim jombang; Mranggen led by kiai Muslih, Suryalaya Tasikmalaya under the leadership of KH shohibulwafa Tajularifin (Abah anom), and pagentongan, bogor led by kiai Thohir falak, Genealogy Rejoso ahmad Lines derived from ahamad Hasbullah, Suryalaya of tolhah path. Cirebon and others from the path of Sheikh abd al-karim banten.